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全部文献(19)

  • 国际关系|International Relations美国国家安全战略报告(2017,中英对照)

    美国国家安全战略 2017年12月 白宫 华盛顿特区 我的美国同胞们: 美国人民选择了我来让美国再次变得强大。我承诺我领导的本届政府会把美国公民的安全、利益和福祉放在首位。我承诺我们将重振美国的经济,重建我们的军队,保卫我们的边境,维护我们的主权并推进我们的价值观。

    作者/编者:Wells公司 机构:Wells 日期:2020-07-10 00:00:00 浏览:265次 
  • 军事与国家安全|Military & National Security美国国家安全战略报告(2017,中英对照)

    美国国家安全战略 2017年12月 白宫 华盛顿特区 我的美国同胞们: 美国人民选择了我来让美国再次变得强大。我承诺我领导的本届政府会把美国公民的安全、利益和福祉放在首位。我承诺我们将重振美国的经济,重建我们的军队,保卫我们的边境,维护我们的主权并推进我们的价值观。

    作者/编者:Wells公司 机构:Wells 日期:2020-07-10 00:00:00 浏览:265次 
  • 经贸|Economics & Trade美国《2020年国家贸易评估报告》概要

    美国《2020年国家贸易评估报告》涵盖63个国家和地区,包括美国20个自由贸易协定(FTA)合作伙伴,以及美国商品出口的50个最大市场。报告主要聚焦关税、进口许可、数据流动、海关、农业配额、产业补贴、电信服务提供限制等美方关切问题。

    作者/编者:丁颖 机构:高文律师事务所 日期:2020-04-04 03:12:02 浏览:513次 
  • 经贸|Economics & Trade美国《2020年国家贸易评估报告》概要

    美国《2020年国家贸易评估报告》涵盖63个国家和地区,包括美国20个自由贸易协定(FTA)合作伙伴,以及美国商品出口的50个最大市场。报告主要聚焦关税、进口许可、数据流动、海关、农业配额、产业补贴、电信服务提供限制等美方关切问题。

    作者/编者:Executive Office of the President of the United States 机构:美国政府 日期:2020-04-03 09:51:01 浏览:293次 
  • 国际关系|International Relations美国1950国防生产法案:给国会的历史、效力及考量

    Congressional Research Service Summary The Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950 (P.L. 81-774, 50 U.S.C. §§4501 et seq.), as amended, confers upon the President a broad set of authorities to influence domestic industry in the interest of national defense. The authorities can be used across the federal government to shape the domestic industrial base so that, when called upon, it is capable of providing essential materials and goods needed for the national defense. Though initially passed in response to the Korean War, the DPA is historically based on the War Powers Acts of World War II. Gradually, Congress has expanded the term national defense, as defined in the DPA. Based on this definition, the scope of DPA authorities now extends beyond shaping U.S. military preparedness and capabilities, as the authorities may also be used to enhance and support domestic preparedness, response, and recovery from natural hazards, terrorist attacks, and other national emergencies. Some current DPA authorities include, but are not limited to  Title I: Priorities and Allocations, which allows the President to require persons (including businesses and corporations) to prioritize and accept contracts for materials and services as necessary to promote the national defense.  Title III: Expansion of Productive Capacity and Supply, which allows the President to incentivize the domestic industrial base to expand the production and supply of critical materials and goods. Authorized incentives include loans, loan guarantees, direct purchases and purchase commitments, and the authority to procure and install equipment in private industrial facilities.  Title VII: General Provisions, which includes key definitions for the DPA and several distinct authorities, including the authority to establish voluntary agreements with private industry; the authority to block proposed or pending foreign corporate mergers, acquisitions, or takeovers that threaten national security; and the authority to employ persons of outstanding experience and ability and to establish a volunteer pool of industry executives who could be called to government service in the interest of the national defense. These are not the exclusive authorities of the DPA, but rather some of the most pertinent because of their historical or current use. The authorities of the DPA are generally afforded to the President in the statute. The President, in turn, has delegated these authorities to department and agency heads in Executive Order 13603, National Defense Resource Preparedness, issued in 2012. While the authorities are most frequently used by, and commonly associated with, the Department of Defense (DOD), they can be and have been used by numerous other executive departments and agencies. Since 1950, the DPA has been reauthorized over 50 times, though significant authorities were terminated from the original law in 1953. Congress last reauthorized the DPA in Section 1791 of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (P.L. 115-232). This extended the termination of the act by six years, from September 30, 2019, to September 30, 2025, when nearly all DPA authorities will terminate. A few authorities of the DPA, such as the Exon-Florio Amendment (which established government review of the acquisition of U.S. companies by foreigners) and anti-trust protections for certain voluntary industry agreements, have been made permanent by Congress. The DPA lies within the legislative jurisdiction of the House Committee on Financial Services and the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. The Defense Production Act of 1950 Congressional Research Service Congress may consider enhancing its oversight of executive branch activities related to the DPA in a number of ways. To enhance oversight, Congress could expand executive branch reporting requirements, track and enforce rulemaking requirements, review the activities of the Defense Production Act Committee, and broaden the committee oversight jurisdiction of the DPA in Congress. Congress may also consider amending the DPA, either by creating new authorities or repealing existing ones. In addition, Congress may consider amending the definitions of the DPA to expand or restrict the DPA’s scope, amending the statute to supersede the President’s delegation of DPA authorities made in E.O. 13603, or consider adjusting future appropriations to the DPA Fund in order to manage the scope of Title III projects initiated by the President.

    作者/编者:CRS 机构:Wells 日期:2020-03-19 08:42:05 浏览:421次 
  • 经贸|Economics & Trade美国1950国防生产法案:给国会的历史、效力及考量

    Congressional Research Service Summary The Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950 (P.L. 81-774, 50 U.S.C. §§4501 et seq.), as amended, confers upon the President a broad set of authorities to influence domestic industry in the interest of national defense. The authorities can be used across the federal government to shape the domestic industrial base so that, when called upon, it is capable of providing essential materials and goods needed for the national defense. Though initially passed in response to the Korean War, the DPA is historically based on the War Powers Acts of World War II. Gradually, Congress has expanded the term national defense, as defined in the DPA. Based on this definition, the scope of DPA authorities now extends beyond shaping U.S. military preparedness and capabilities, as the authorities may also be used to enhance and support domestic preparedness, response, and recovery from natural hazards, terrorist attacks, and other national emergencies. Some current DPA authorities include, but are not limited to  Title I: Priorities and Allocations, which allows the President to require persons (including businesses and corporations) to prioritize and accept contracts for materials and services as necessary to promote the national defense.  Title III: Expansion of Productive Capacity and Supply, which allows the President to incentivize the domestic industrial base to expand the production and supply of critical materials and goods. Authorized incentives include loans, loan guarantees, direct purchases and purchase commitments, and the authority to procure and install equipment in private industrial facilities.  Title VII: General Provisions, which includes key definitions for the DPA and several distinct authorities, including the authority to establish voluntary agreements with private industry; the authority to block proposed or pending foreign corporate mergers, acquisitions, or takeovers that threaten national security; and the authority to employ persons of outstanding experience and ability and to establish a volunteer pool of industry executives who could be called to government service in the interest of the national defense. These are not the exclusive authorities of the DPA, but rather some of the most pertinent because of their historical or current use. The authorities of the DPA are generally afforded to the President in the statute. The President, in turn, has delegated these authorities to department and agency heads in Executive Order 13603, National Defense Resource Preparedness, issued in 2012. While the authorities are most frequently used by, and commonly associated with, the Department of Defense (DOD), they can be and have been used by numerous other executive departments and agencies. Since 1950, the DPA has been reauthorized over 50 times, though significant authorities were terminated from the original law in 1953. Congress last reauthorized the DPA in Section 1791 of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (P.L. 115-232). This extended the termination of the act by six years, from September 30, 2019, to September 30, 2025, when nearly all DPA authorities will terminate. A few authorities of the DPA, such as the Exon-Florio Amendment (which established government review of the acquisition of U.S. companies by foreigners) and anti-trust protections for certain voluntary industry agreements, have been made permanent by Congress. The DPA lies within the legislative jurisdiction of the House Committee on Financial Services and the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. The Defense Production Act of 1950 Congressional Research Service Congress may consider enhancing its oversight of executive branch activities related to the DPA in a number of ways. To enhance oversight, Congress could expand executive branch reporting requirements, track and enforce rulemaking requirements, review the activities of the Defense Production Act Committee, and broaden the committee oversight jurisdiction of the DPA in Congress. Congress may also consider amending the DPA, either by creating new authorities or repealing existing ones. In addition, Congress may consider amending the definitions of the DPA to expand or restrict the DPA’s scope, amending the statute to supersede the President’s delegation of DPA authorities made in E.O. 13603, or consider adjusting future appropriations to the DPA Fund in order to manage the scope of Title III projects initiated by the President.

    作者/编者:CRS 机构:Wells 日期:2020-03-19 08:42:05 浏览:421次 
  • 军事与国家安全|Military & National Security2018年美国核态势评估报告(中英对照)

    Introduction On January 27, 2017, President Donald Trump directed Secretary of Defense James Mattis to initiate a new Nuclear Posture Review (NPR). The President made clear that his first priority is to protect the United States, allies, and partners. He also emphasized both the long-term goal of eliminating nuclear weapons and the requirement that the United States have modern, flexible, and resilient nuclear capabilities that are safe and secure until such a time as nuclear weapons can prudently be eliminated from the world. 导言:2017年1月27日,唐纳德•特朗普总统指示国防部长詹姆斯•马蒂斯起草一份新的《核态势评估》。总统明确表示,他的第一要务是保护美国、盟友和伙伴。他还强调了消除核武器的长期目标以及在核武器从世界上被谨慎地消除之前美国必须拥有最新式、灵活和抗打击核能力,而这种能力必须是安全和可控的。

    作者/编者:Wells 机构:Wells 日期:2020-03-12 11:21:10 浏览:445次 
  • 国际关系|International Relations2018年美国国防战略概要-中英对照

    前言 国防部的持久使命是提供作战可靠的军事力量,以慑止战争并保护我们国家的安全。如果威慑失败,联合部队准备作战并取胜。为加强美国外交的传统手段,国防部提供军事选择,以确保总统和我们的外交人员在谈判中处于优势地位。 今天,我们正处于战略性萎缩时期,我们意识到我们的竞争性军事优势正在被削弱。我们正面临着日益严重的全球秩序混乱,其特征是长期以来以规则为基础的国际秩序的衰落——正导致一个比我们近期记忆中的任何经历都更为复杂和不稳定的安全环境。国与国之间的战略竞争,而非恐怖主义,是当今美国国家安全的首要关切。 中国是美国的战略竞争对手,它使用掠夺性的经济手段恫吓邻国,并对南海进行军事化。俄罗斯侵犯了周边国家的边境,并力争对邻国在经济、外交和安全领域所做的决定行使否决权。此外,尽管遭到联合国的谴责和制裁,朝鲜的非法行为和鲁莽言论仍然存在。伊朗继续散播暴力,仍然是中东稳定的最大挑战。尽管伊斯兰国的实体哈里发已被击败,但对稳定的威胁仍然存在,因为恐怖主义集团长期以来继续谋杀无辜者并更严重地威胁和平。 ......

    作者/编者:Wells 机构:Wells 日期:2020-02-04 11:11:01 浏览:493次 
  • 军事与国家安全|Military & National Security2018年美国国防战略概要-中英对照

    前言 国防部的持久使命是提供作战可靠的军事力量,以慑止战争并保护我们国家的安全。如果威慑失败,联合部队准备作战并取胜。为加强美国外交的传统手段,国防部提供军事选择,以确保总统和我们的外交人员在谈判中处于优势地位。 今天,我们正处于战略性萎缩时期,我们意识到我们的竞争性军事优势正在被削弱。我们正面临着日益严重的全球秩序混乱,其特征是长期以来以规则为基础的国际秩序的衰落——正导致一个比我们近期记忆中的任何经历都更为复杂和不稳定的安全环境。国与国之间的战略竞争,而非恐怖主义,是当今美国国家安全的首要关切。 中国是美国的战略竞争对手,它使用掠夺性的经济手段恫吓邻国,并对南海进行军事化。俄罗斯侵犯了周边国家的边境,并力争对邻国在经济、外交和安全领域所做的决定行使否决权。此外,尽管遭到联合国的谴责和制裁,朝鲜的非法行为和鲁莽言论仍然存在。伊朗继续散播暴力,仍然是中东稳定的最大挑战。尽管伊斯兰国的实体哈里发已被击败,但对稳定的威胁仍然存在,因为恐怖主义集团长期以来继续谋杀无辜者并更严重地威胁和平。 ......

    作者/编者:Wells 机构:Wells 日期:2020-02-04 11:11:01 浏览:493次 
  • 军事与国家安全|Military & National Security2020美国国防授权法案(英文全文)

    Shown Here: Passed House (07/12/2019) National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 This bill authorizes FY2020 appropriations and sets forth policies for Department of Defense (DOD) programs and activities, including military personnel strengths. It does not provide budget authority, which is provided in subsequent appropriations legislation. The bill authorizes appropriations to DOD for Procurement, including aircraft, weapons and tracked combat vehicles, shipbuilding and conversion, missiles, and space procurement; Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation; Operation and Maintenance; Working Capital Funds; Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction; Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities; the Defense Inspector General; the Defense Health Program; the Armed Forces Retirement Home; Overseas Contingency Operations; and Military Construction. The bill authorizes the FY2020 personnel strengths for active duty and reserve forces and sets forth policies regarding military personnel; acquisition policy and management; international programs; National Guard and Reserve Forces facilities; compensation and other personnel benefits; health care; DOD organization and management; civilian personnel matters; matters relating to foreign nations; and strategic programs, cyber, and intelligence matters. The bill authorizes appropriations for base realignment and closure activities, and maritime matters. The bill also authorizes appropriations and sets forth policies for Department of Energy national security programs, including the National Nuclear Security Administration and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The bill sets forth policies for North Korea nuclear sanctions, paid family leave for federal personnel, limiting the use of criminal history in federal hiring and contracting, defense equipment sales to foreign countries or international organizations, matters relating to Burma, Saudi Arabia human rights and accountability, measures to combat illicit trafficking that finances Al-Shabaab, sanctions with respect to foreign traffickers of illicit synthetic opioids, and a Cable Security Fleet to meet national security requirements.

    作者/编者:美国国会 机构:Wells 日期:2019-12-22 04:30:57 浏览:684次